Sometimes rules are made to be broken. Even grammar rules.
I’m a rule-follower by nature—and a compulsive reader on top of that. Combine those two traits and you have someone that knows rules that a good portion of the population don’t know exist and religiously follows them.
Well, maybe not quite that bad. But you get my point. I don’t intentionally break rules. But sometimes we must. We need to know when NOT to follow the rules.
As much as I love grammar, as much as I love studying the structure and intricacies in language, I know there are times when grammatical rules must be forsaken or I will fail as a writer.
There are times when self-expression trumps the revered style guides.
Rules NOT to Follow: (at least not ALL of the time!)
1. Don’t start a sentence with a conjunction, such as AND or BUT.
But what about when you’re trying to make a statement? Right. You get it now. Point taken.
Sometimes it is necessary to begin a sentence with a conjunction to make a point. It adds emphasis.
2. Never use sentence fragments.
Talk about shoving self-expression into a box and throwing it into a deep pit. A dark pit. A pit filled with grammar rules etched into its walls. A dark pit that insists each sentence fragment be rewritten as a complete sentence.
We must rescue sentence fragments from the pit. Sentence fragments add emphasis and zing. They don’t dwell on what they’re getting at. They just say it. Short and snappy. Self-expression at its best.
3. A paragraph must be between three and five sentences long.
We live in a fast-paced society. We scan multiple articles on the worldwide web on a daily basis. We even read posts on our smartphones. We’re in a rush. Has this affected the desired paragraph length?
Maybe, maybe not. Literary style, as with other styles, changes with time.
Whatever the reason, particularly in articles and posts, short paragraphs reign. They pull us along rather than bogging us down. They get to the point.
Longer paragraphs aren’t all bad. In writing fiction, I prefer a blend of shorter and longer paragraphs to keep staleness at bay.
And then there are those one sentence—or one word—paragraphs. A rebellious blend of sentence fragment and too short of paragraph. But they make their point. Wonderfully.
By no means is this an exhaustive list. This is just to get your creative juices flowing, to get your mind considering that literary license may permit you to break the rules. At least some of them.
Our goal is to communicate. If the rules get in the way of communication, put them on the shelf.
Learn the rules. Learn how to use them. And learn when its time for self-expression to trump the rules.
(A Note to the Wise: Remember to keep a balance in all things. Don’t go to the extreme and use literary license as an excuse for poor grammar. Overuse kills the effectiveness!)
- The 10 Essential Grammar Rules Of Life (ollinmorales.wordpress.com)
- High School Grammar Rules to Break Sometimes (www.ragan.com)
- Three Grammar Rules You Can (And Should) Break (www.copyblogger.com)
- Grammar Rules You Can Break (www.bestrank.com)
Are you ready to break the rules? Do you have any examples of your own to share? Please do so in the comments section.
ABOUT THE AUTHOR: Rosie Cochran
I am a pastor’s wife, former missionary, mother of four great sons, and author of three Christian suspense novels: Betrayed, Identity Revealed, and A Murder Unseen. (Available at: Amazon.com.) I have a passion for God, my family, and writing! If you want to connect with me, join me on Twitter, Facebook, Goodreads, and Pinterest. Interested in updates by email? CLICK HERE!
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The rules for writing dates, years, decades, and times can leave you scratching your head. If in doubt, check out the rules below!
- When writing out a date like “the 1st of April,” you use the ordinal number.
- When writing out a date, such as “August 1, 2012,” you do NOT use an ordinal number (first, second, third, etc.), but a cardinal number (one, two, three, etc.).
- When writing out a date in the American format (month, day, year) using all three elements (month, day, and year), commas are required after the month, day, and year.
- When writing out a date in the American format (month, day, year) using only two of the three elements, no commas are required.
- Commas are NEVER required when writing out a date in European format.
- Do take note that a comma MAY appear after a year despite the above stated rules if the comma is required due to the sentence itself.
“I do not want my child to be born on the 1st of April.”
“The party will be held on August 1, 2012.”
“He escaped on January 10, 2001, but was caught two weeks later.”
“She will graduate in May 2012 as long as she passes all her courses.”
“He will arrive on May 10.”
“He will arrive on 27 September 2011 if he makes all his connections.”
“He escaped on 10 January 2001, but was caught two weeks later.”
“I hope my child is not born on 1 of April.”
“The party will be held on April 2nd, 2012.”
“He escaped on January 10 2001 but was caught the next day.”
“He will start his new job in May, 2012.”
“He arrived on 27, September, 2011.”
- Though sentences are NOT to begin with numerals, there is a general exception to begin a sentence with a year in numeral form.
- The year can be shortened by using an apostrophe to replace the first two digits.
“2010 was an exceptional year for the company.”
“I was promoted in ’10.”
Decades may be expressed in the following three way:
(i) Decades may be spelled out in lowercase.
(ii) Decades may be written as complete numerals with an “s” added onto the end (but with no apostrophe between the numeral and the “s”).
(iii) Decades may be written in shortened numeral form by using an apostrophe to replace the first two digits of the year and adding an “s” (without the apostrophe) to the end of the decade.
“He grew up in the seventies.”
“During the 1970s the economy was booming.”
“He grew up in the ’70s.”
“During the 1970’s the economy was booming.”
“He grew up in the 70’s.”
“He wished he could return to the ’80’s.”
- In text, you usually spell out the time of day, even the half and quarter hours. When using o’clock, you always spell out the number.
- Numerals are used for times when exact times are being emphasized and when using A.M. or P.M.
- For clarity’s sake, use noon and midnight instead of 12:00 P.M. and 12:00 A.M.
“He woke up at four thirty to catch his flight.”
“His flight left at six o’clock in the morning.”
“John’s flight leaves at 6:10 A.M.”
“There was a 5:30 P.M. deadline for the project.”
“They will arrive at noon.”
“You need to be here by 4:00 sharp!”
- Guide to Writing Numbers (writingtomarketing.wordpress.com)
Have you ever sat back and double-guessed yourself on when to spell out a number and when to write it as a numeral? If so, check out the rules below!
1) Spell It Out VS. Numeral
Single-digit whole numbers are spelled out.
“S” for SINGLE-DIGIT goes with “S” for SPELLED OUT.
You use numerals for numbers greater than nine.
“N” for NUMBERS greater than NINE goes with “N” for NUMERALS.
“I want to buy two bikes.”
“I need to print 10 booklets.”
“I want to buy 2 bikes.”
“I need to print ten booklets.”
2) Mixed Single & Double-Digit Whole Numbers
When faced with a mix of single and double-digit whole numbers, if one needs to be written as a numeral, write all as numerals for consistency.
“My friend has 10 brothers but only 1 sister.”
“The teacher has 20 boys and 3 girls in his class.”
“My friend has ten brothers but only 1 sister.”
“The teacher had 20 boys and three girls in his class.”
3) Consistency within Categories
To confuse the issue somewhat, we’ll now cover mixed single and double-digit whole numbers in different categories. In this case you can choose to use spelled out numbers for one category and numerals for the other. Read the examples below to demystify what I’m talking about!
“If we purchase 10 computers for each of the five departments, we
will still be within budget to purchase 5 desks for each of the five
departments.” (Purchases are written as numerals. Departments are
written as words.)
“If we purchase 10 computers for each of the five departments, we
will still be within budget to purchase five desks for each of the 5
department.” (In this example, the categories of purchases and
departments are switched in each part of the sentence, which makes it incorrect.)
4) Beginning of a Sentence
- When a number begins a sentence you must spell it out. If the number is lengthy, it is advised to rephrase the sentence for ease of reading.
- One general exception to the rule is that you may begin a sentence with a year in numeral form.
“Twenty-five soldiers manned the outpost.”
“Thirty-one patients died from the outbreak.”
“2009 was a record-breaking year for the company.”
“29 employees were laid off.”
“16 new jobs were created by the contract.”
5) Numbers Side by Side
When two numbers are side by side, you should spell one out and use a numeral for the other for ease of reading.
“We bought 24 ten-foot planks.”
6) Hyphenation of Compound Numbers
All compound numbers from twenty-one through ninety-nine should be hyphenated.
“Twenty-nine prisoners of war were released.”
“Forty-six people died during the outbreak.”
“Twenty six prisoners escaped.”
“There were thirty nine students in the class.”
7) Large Numbers
- The simplest way to express large numbers is best.
- Rounded numbers are usually spelled out.
- Consistency in the sentence is important.
“The population was between one million and five million.”
“You could earn anywhere from three hundred to three million dollars.”
“You could earn anywhere from $3 hundred to $3 million.”
“The population was between one million and 5,000,000.”
“You could earn anywhere from $300 to three million dollars.”
- Writing Time Frames (writingtomarketing.wordpress.com)